Chulalongkorn University Theses and Dissertations (Chula ETD)

Year (A.D.)


Document Type

Independent Study

First Advisor

Natthanan Kunnamas


Graduate School (บัณฑิตวิทยาลัย)

Degree Name

Master of Arts

Degree Level

Master's Degree

Degree Discipline

European Studies




Currently, the energy transition is gaining more and more importance in European energy policy. This article aims to introduce the achievements, contributions and challenges of Europe's current energy transition. The article outlines some of the main energy goals and initiatives proposed and developed by EU institutions. The EU attaches great importance to renewable energy, energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), identifying them as the three ultimate supporters for achieving carbon neutrality. The EU aims to be climate neutral by 2050. However, since energy policy requires the joint efforts of EU institutions and the WTO, each WTO plays a key role in achieving the EU's goals. Differences in socio-economic and energy structures between EU WTOs lead to different speeds at which they can achieve EU targets. Taking Germany and Spain as examples, their political policies, measures and actions with regard to the energy transition are assessed. These two countries are just examples of differences in the implementation of EU energy and climate goals. The article also describes the ambitious "Green New Deal" initiative of the EU presidency. The initiative not only identifies key goals, but also safeguards Europe's commitment to the energy and climate transition. However, the plan faced major obstacles. The difference in energy level among member states in the process of energy transition may become an important factor hindering Europe from realizing the goal of energy transition. Another challenge is the opposition of some people, especially those who believe that the energy transition is designed to attract the coming economic and industrial transformation as well as harm their welfare and pose a potential threat to employment. Finally, the energy transition mentioned in this article is not only the responsibility of Spain and Germany, but also the responsibility of the entire European Union and other world economies. Only by working together to promote energy transition and build a community with a shared future for mankind can we make the world a better place. The United Kingdom (UK) also plays a major role in the European Union's (EU) energy transition ahead of its departure from the European Union in 2020. Here are some of the ways the UK is influencing the EU's energy transition: (i) The first is renewable energy: the UK is one of the EU leaders in the deployment of renewable energy, especially offshore wind. UK expertise and investment in renewable energy helps advance the EU's renewable energy targets and develop innovative technologies for clean energy generation. (2) The second is climate change: the UK has always been a staunch supporter of EU climate change policies, including the Paris Agreement. Its participation in the EU's efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions helps strengthen the EU's position as a global leader in the fight against climate change. (iii) The third is the energy market: as an energy consumer and producer, the UK is an important participant in the EU energy market. (iv) The fourth is energy research and innovation: the UK actively participates in EU-funded energy research and innovation projects. Its contributions to these programs help drive the development of new clean energy technologies and increase the overall effectiveness of the EU's energy transition efforts. Overall, the UK's participation in the EU's energy transition is significant, and its withdrawal poses some challenges for the EU. The impact of Brexit on the EU's energy transition is complex, and it remains to be seen how the EU will adapt to the loss of the UK's contribution to its energy policies and initiatives. Brexit will also have some impact on the EU's energy transition, especially in the field of renewable energy. First of all, the UK is an important energy market in Europe, and Brexit will have a certain impact on the EU energy market. Second, the UK's own energy policy and future development direction will also affect the EU's energy transition. The United Kingdom has a relatively high level of development in renewable energy, and its policies may change after Brexit, such as reducing subsidies for renewable energy. This may affect the EU's progress in renewable energy, and even delay the EU's energy transition process. In addition, after Brexit, energy trade with the EU may be subject to certain restrictions, and it will take time and resources to form a new trade relationship. This may have some impact on the EU energy market and supply chain. It can be seen that the impact of Brexit on the European Union will affect the various member states of the European Union. Brexit has brought certain uncertainties and challenges to the EU's energy transition, but at the same time there are also opportunities and potential areas of cooperation, which require the joint efforts of the EU and the UK.Finally, It can be explained how Europe's energy transition will also affect its external relations, for example with Russia, and propose how the two blocs can maintain energy relations in light of the energy transition, in particular through the conversion of natural gas into hydrogen and the storage/use of the resulting of carbon dioxide.



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