Chulalongkorn Medical Journal


Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused abrupt changes in almost everybody’s life, particularly children. Children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties in many aspects in lives and may have worsening of the symptoms during the pandemic.

Objectives: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to investigate the changes of the ADHD symptoms and managements of children with ADHD during the first lockdown and after-lockdown period.

Methods: Parent-reported questionnaires i.e. the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale-IV (SNAP-IV) and a demographic questionnaire, were applied to collect data from 109 children with ADHD aged between 4 -18 years during Thailand’s post-lockdown period of October 2020 to January 2021. Descriptive statistics, paired t - test, Pearson’s correlation and Pearson Chi’s square were applied in this study.

Results: The ADHD symptoms of the sample were significantly more severe during the lockdown than the post-lockdown period. Drug compliance and psychosocial interventions were not significantly different between the two periods. Factors affecting ADHD symptoms were male gender, psychosocial interventions, and exercise. A factor affecting drug compliance was total family income. Factors affecting psychosocial interventions were ADHD symptoms.

Conclusions: The ADHD symptoms worsened during the lockdown compared to the post-lockdown period. The pharmacological and psychosocial management of children with ADHD were not significantly different. Recall bias was a potential limitation of this study.





To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.