Background: Several studies have reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) effects on brain volume and found white matter signal abnormality (WMSA) on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Objective: To evaluate brain volume and WMSA of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated perinatally-acquired HIV infected (PHIV) young children. Methods: From November 2016 to March 2018, MRI of 19 ART-treated PHIV young children, aged 12 - 56 months, were analyzed for structural brain volume using FreeSurfer software with manual correction. WMSA were classified into 4 grades. Comparison between the brain volumes and WMSA between early and late ART-treated groups as well as changes of the brain volumes after 1-year follow-up were investigated. The correlations between MRI data and neurodevelopment were explored. Results: Mean differences of total intracranial volume (TICV), total brain volume (TBV), and cerebral WM volume were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the early ART-treated group after 1-year follow-up. WMSA was seen in most patients (n = 16, 79.0%). The positive correlations of higher severity of WMSA with very early age at start of ART and with lower early learning composite (ELC) scores were found. Conclusion: Brain volume in the early ART-treated PHIV group tends to grow more after 1-year follow-up. A higher severity degree of WMSA was significantly associated with very early ART treatment and poorer neurodevelopment.
Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University
Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri and Chaiyagool, Kultida
"Changes in brain structural volume and white matter abnormalities in young perinatally-acquired HIV infected children treated with antiretroviral therapy,"
Chulalongkorn Medical Journal: Vol. 66:
4, Article 14.
Available at: https://digital.car.chula.ac.th/clmjournal/vol66/iss4/14