The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine


African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious, hemorrhagic and highly lethal viral disease in swine. Following the initial report of ASF in Kenya in 1921 it spread to East Asia through Western Europe and Russia (including Eastern Europe). Many efforts have been dedicated to controlling ASF but the struggle to eradicate this disease continues. Thus far, the efforts to develop an effective vaccine to control ASF have been unsuccessful. A previous inactivated ASF vaccine, developed by traditional methods, failed to protect pigs from ASF virus (ASFV) infection. Neutralizing antibodies were not effective in inducing protective immunity and it appears that cellular immunity is required. To develop an effective ASF vaccine the identification of protective antigens of ASFV has been explored and subunit vaccines that target these potential protective antigens have induced partial protection. DNA vaccines that induce cellular immunity have been effective in inducing protection against ASFV infection. ASFV live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) can be rationally designed and engineered via comparative and functional genomics. LAVs have a major safety concern despite their high protective efficacy. ASF vaccines are urgently needed to control ASF; however, many obstacles remain to be overcome to develop an effective ASF vaccine.

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