The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine


Actinomycosis is a sporadic disease of cattle, caused by Actinomyces bovis. In presence of oral injuries or openings, A. bovis could penetrate tissues and infect maxilla or mandible bones. A Holstein Friesian cow was presented for inappetence, weight loss and a left-sided mandibular swelling. A unilateral swelling was visible on the left jaw as a ventro-lateral and circular in shape. A fine-needle aspiration was collected. Ultrasonography examination was performed. Bacteriological analysis was negative. Due to the history, actinomycosis diagnosis was suggested and the cow was culled. Pathological examination revealed lesions indicative of chronic pyogranulomatous mandibular osteomyelitis with intralesional colonies of gram-positive bacteria, consistent with infection due to A. bovis. The importance of an early diagnosis was here highlighted . Since the bacterial culture is not always easy to perform and is usually time-consuming, in case of suspected actinomycosis, the ultrasonographic findings may orient the clinician decision to start adequate and earlier therapy. Further research is needed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography for diagnosing actinomycosis.

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