The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine


This study aimed to investigate chemical quality of animal drinking used in livestock farms in Thailand. Samples and information from 68 pig farms, 35 chicken farms and 9 duckling farms were collected during March to August 2011. Water quality data were analyzed and compared with standard levels using the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Tests. Results revealed that median chemical values of water for livestock were generally within standard levels, except manganese and iron, which were detected in surfacewater with median values of 0.183 and 0.506 ppm, respectively, and are both higher than standard limits for drinking water. Median pH value in groundwater was 6.85, which was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than pH value (7.23) in surfacewater, and median level of hardness was 169.5 ppm in groundwater, which was significantly higher than that of surface water. Logistic regression was performed to identify a common source of water chemical contaminants and revealed that farms located outside the western region of Thailand and using surfacewater for their livestock were at risk of the high manganese levels in the water. Moreover, analyzed data from Department of Groundwater Resources of Thailand demonstrated high amount of hardness, manganese and iron in groundwater of Thailand, correlated with our findings. Thus, farms using surface or underground water should be aware of high level of manganese, iron and hardness.



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