A macroscopic study revealed that a double cranial vena cava was present in fifteen, adult, Lylei’s flying foxes, of both sexes. It consisted of right and left branches, without forming a left brachiocephalic vein. However, both of them drained blood into the right atrium. The right cranial vena cava drained blood directly into the right atrium. The left cranial vena cava drained blood into the coronary sinus before returning blood into the right atrium. The right cranial vena cava was larger than the left one. The opening of the left cranial vena cava at the right atrium was lower than that of the caudal vena cava. This study intends to draw attention about the size and tributary of these vessels as well as to compare them with other animals. The double cranial vena cava that found in the Lylei’s flying fox is similar to those found in amphibians, reptiles, avians, rodents (except guinea pig), rabbits, marsupials, insectivores and elephants, but different in size and it’s tributary. This contrasts to those found in adult carnivores, ungulates (except elephants), ruminants, primates and humans, which all have just a right cranial or superior vena cava.
Uthaichotiwan, Pawana and Sricharoenvej, Sirinush
"A MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE CRANIAL VENA CAVA IN LYLEI’S FLYING FOXES,"
The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine: Vol. 35:
4, Article 4.
Available at: https://digital.car.chula.ac.th/tjvm/vol35/iss4/4