Publication Date



In the century of time spanning the mid 1880s to the mid 1980s, the language teaching profession was involved in what many pedagogical experts would call a search. That search was for a single, ideal method, generalizable across widely varying audiences, that would successfully teach students a foreign language in the classroom. Historical accounts of the profession tend therefore to describe a succession of methods each of which are more or less discarded in due course of time as a new method takes its place. I will comment on "the changing winds and shifting sands" (Marckwardt 1972:5) of that history momentarily; but first, we should try to understand what we mean by method.



First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.