NAKHARA (Journal of Environmental Design and Planning)

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The planning culture in the Netherlands is based on the experience of building cities on very wet and soft soils. The design of Dutch polder cities was from early on a balance between land and water forbuilding site preparation. The relation between technological development and urban development can be ordered in six phases: natural (-1000), defensive (1000-1500), offensive (1500-1800), early manipulative (1800-1890), manipulative (1890-1990) and adaptive manipulative water management (1990-). Rotterdam is chosen to represent the heritage of Dutch talent with regard to the design and construction of water and land into dynamic cities. This is important because awareness and knowledge about historical principles makes it possible to draw a line into the future.

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