Chulalongkorn University Theses and Dissertations (Chula ETD)

Year (A.D.)


Document Type

Independent Study

First Advisor

Roongkiat Ratanabanchuen


Faculty of Commerce and Accountancy (คณะพาณิชยศาสตร์และการบัญชี)

Department (if any)

Department of Banking and Finance (ภาควิชาการธนาคารและการเงิน)

Degree Name

Master of Science

Degree Level

Master's Degree

Degree Discipline





This paper finds empirical evidence of the beta anomaly in the European REIT market in the period 2012 – 2021. The alpha of a low minus high beta strategy is positive and statistically significant which can interpret that the low beta REITs have a higher risk-adjusted return than high beta REITs. To examine the explanation behind the beta anomaly, the controlling variables which may cause the beta anomaly including the lottery-like stock return factor, the skewness factor, and the institutional ownership factor are added into the Fama-French 3-factor model. For the result, only the institutional ownership factor which refers to the leverage constraint hypothesis shows a significant relation with REIT returns. To examine that the beta anomaly is a demonstration of the leverage constraint hypothesis, the result of pooled OLS regression shows a significant relationship between REIT betas and institutional ownership.



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