Asian Review

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This paper illustrates the connection between environmental problems, social conflict, and security problems, both individual's security and state's security. It argues that environmental and security problems are not a result of natural resource depletion, environmental degradation, or of a failed state only, but are also caused by the modern sovereign state exercising its rights to possess and manage natural resources over the rights of community. There are two factors that lead to social conflicts and that question the state's legitimacy, which will eventually become a legitimacy problem that challenges the state's security. These factors are: the lack of public governance in the implementation of the state's policy concerning the utilization, management, and preservation of the environment; and no opportunity for stakeholders, who lack power in the policy process, to gain effective participation in the formulation and implementation of policies that affect them.



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