Asian Review

Publication Date



After 1973, the Thai student movement was limited and weakened by several right-wing movements that collectively operated as counter-movements. This paper explores the factors and processes that account for the emergence and success of these counter-movements. The impact of the student movement, the changing political rules, and the incapacity of the Thai elite to employ old tactics to crush the student movement created critical conditions for a counter-movement to mobilize. Such conditions, however, cannot guarantee success. The success of the right-wing movements resulted from three factors: 1) effective organization and framing; 2) fragmentation of authority; and 3) state inaction. This Thai case suggests, in contrast to existing arguments in democratization literature, that it was not the radicalization of the progressive movements alone that was responsible for the failure of democracy but the complex if manipulated interaction between them, right-wing movements, and the state.



First Page


Last Page


Included in

Asian Studies Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.