Asian Review


Amara Pongsapic

Publication Date



When the world was divided into capitalistic-democratic and socialist-communist regimes, most states in both camps as well as Third World countries adopted nationalism as a necessary ideology. National integration was perceived as not only necessary but possible only in a homogenous society. In many countries, cultural diversity existed but was not recognized in nation-building processes. After the fall of communist regimes at the turn of the decade, cultural pluralism became obvious in USSR and Eastern European countries. After 1989, in Eastern European countries where diversity was recognized, the concepts of civil society and good governance were promoted. Economic and social globalization make the process of nation building more complicated. National security can no longer be viewed as the most important goal in the nation building process. Because of the negative impacts of economic globalization, social globalization is a process introduced in the international arena as a counterbalance. But after the September 11 incident, fears over national security have returned.



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