Applied Environmental Research

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Flash flooding is one of the periodic geohazards in the eastern desert of Egypt where many parts of Upper Egypt, Sinai, and Red Sea areas were hit by severe flash floods, for example in 1976, 1982, 1996 and January 2010. The hazard degree for each sub-basin was determined using the approach developed by El-Shamy for assessing susceptibility of sub-basins to flash flooding risk. To identify at-risk sub-basins, two different methods were applied. The first method is based on the relationship between the drainage density and bifurcation ratio, and the second one uses the relationship between drainage frequency and bifurcation ratio. The three morphometric parameters (the bifurcation ratio, drainage density, and stream frequency) were extracted and calculated for each sub-basin of the watershed. Based on the final hazard degree resulting from the two methods, a detailed hazard degree map was extracted for all sub-basins. The results illustrate that there are no sub-basins with low risk of flooding. The sub-basins with the highest hazard degree are concentrated in the middle of the watershed although they have smaller areas compared with the surrounding sub-basins. The sub-basins located at the boundary of the watershed have an intermediate risk of flooding and moderate potential for groundwater recharge. This constructed map can be used as a basic data for assessment of flood mitigation and planning.

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