Applied Environmental Research

Publication Date



The potential to use dredged sediment from the Watsongpeenong Canal and paper mill residue as the primary raw materials for producing facing bricks was studied in the laboratory. Dredged sediment and paper mill residue were chemically, mineralogically, and thermally characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). To evaluate the effects of the contents of the paper mill residue on pore-forming, large amounts of paper mill residue, ranging from 5 to 7 % by mass, were blended with dredged sediments and fired at 700oC. The physical-mechanical properties, including dimensions and tolerances, wryness, deviation of the right angle, water absorption, compressive strength, stain, hole, rails, and cracks, as well as the microstructural properties of the facing bricks, were investigated. In addition, the heavy metals (Mn, Pb, Cd, and Cr) in the facing bricks were identified. The results indicated that the dimensions and tolerance, wryness, deviation from the right angle, water absorption, compressive strength, holes, and rails of the facing bricks with 5 % and 7 % by weight of paper mill residue were compliant with the requirements of the TIS 168-2546 standard. For stains and cracks, no batches of the facing bricks complied with the standard. Facing bricks made from 93 % dredged sediment and 7 % paper mill residue (93D+7P) obtained the highest compressive strength, with a value of 23.66 MPa. Therefore, dredged sediment and paper mill residue can be considered as suitable for use as primary raw materials in the production of facing bricks.

First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.