Although Asian elephant is listed among the endangered species, the number of populations is over the carrying capacity in some areas, resulting in human-elephant conflict, as well as African elephants. High aggression associated with musth and female reproductive pathology are observed in captive elephants. Thus, population and aggression management through reproductive control is an alternative method for mitigating these problems. This article reviews methods of reproductive control in both Asian and African elephants with an overview of male and female reproductive physiology. Hormonal control and immunocontraception, i.e. porcine zona pellucida and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), are described for the control of reproduction, musth and reproductive pathology.
Somgird, Chaleamchat; Brown, Janine L.; and Thitaram, Chatchote
"Reproductive control in elephant: a tool for population and aggression management,"
The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine: Vol. 47:
1, Article 1.
Available at: https://digital.car.chula.ac.th/tjvm/vol47/iss1/1