The Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences


Snakebite, a medical emergency, is a socially significant but neglected issue in India. Antivenom serum therapy that is currently used against venomous snakebites is expensive and showed severe side effects. Traditional claims reported the use of Moringa oleifera to treat snakebite in rural India. To scientifically validate these claims, in the present investigation, the antivenom potential of the extracts of M. oleifera was investigated. The extracts effectively neutralized Russell’s viper venom-induced lethality (LD50: 10.9 μg) at 10 μg/mice and 300 μg/mice (ED50), respectively. Both extracts neutralized venom-induced hemolysis (50–100 μg). Inhibitory concentrations against phospholipase A2 activity exhibited by aqueous and methanolic extracts were found to be 0.06 mg and 0.07 mg, respectively. In the procoagulant activity inhibition studies, the ED values in neutralizing effect of saw-scaled viper venom were found to be 1 μg for both the extracts. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids, and saponins in both the extracts was confirmed through phytochemical and high-performance thin-layer chromatography investigations which supported the obtained activity. This study indicated the potential of M. oleifera extracts to neutralize toxins present in Daboia russelii and Echis carinatus venom. Further bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts to identify bioactives involved in neutralization of snake venom is necessary to establish its therapeutic potential as a venom antidote.


Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University

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