NAKHARA (Journal of Environmental Design and Planning)

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The main goal of paper is to discuss the history of Modern Architecture in Italy, betweenthe beginning of the 20th Century and 1970. We intend to show the main character ofItalian architecture by itself and give a context of the main trend of the European Modernism.To do this, we have to discuss the idea of "Modernity" and the relationships between Italy andother centres of creation in Europe in this age.The discussion is concentrated on the temporal sequence of different architects and a shortdescription of the most significant masterpieces during the 20th Century in Italy. At the sametime, we have the task to discuss other works, not very well-known, but represent the specificcharacter of Italian architecture. The paper intends to demonstrate that Italian Modernarchitecture is a composite scenario of works influenced by the European trend but with itsown specific character, especially through some anomalous artists who generated uniquemasterpieces without master and epigone.We have analyzed the architecture of the Eclecticism and Art Nouveau, the Futurism, Fascismand Rationalism, the age of the post-war reconstruction and re-design of the cities, the mostimportant issues in this period. According to the poetics of "modernity" we have pointed outsome general character that is useful to understand modern architecture in Italy: inventory ofcontents and functions, asymmetry and dissonance, anti-perspective tridimensionality, four-dimensional decomposition, projection and membrane structures, temporalized space,reintegration of building, town and territory.The Modern Movement was based on a strong ethical spirit, on a very precise methodologyderived from the rational study of problems relating to dwelling on a marked functionalism.This analysis of Modern architecture in Italy must have ended on the Seventies in the twentiethcentury. After that age, it began the Post-Structuralism thought with a radical change of theprocess of generation of the architecture.

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