NAKHARA (Journal of Environmental Design and Planning)

Publication Date



This paper presents a case study on the role objects played in the construction of Thai women as social subjects in the period of the American Era and Development. Based on the analysis of popular Thaietiquette manual Kritsana son nong: Naenam marayat thi ngam haeng araya samai, an oral history was generated through conducting interviews with women growing up in the period. The conversations brought to light the term pen sao and illustrated that while certain objects and practices were portrayed generally as signs of modernity and civilisation, they could also be perceived as suspicious when being viewed as signs of gender differences.

First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.