Manusya, Journal of Humanities

Publication Date



It was formerly known and agreed generally that the earliest Southeast Asian people did not create their own civilization, but adopted models from India. Accordingly, civilization in Southeast Asia is called "Indianization". Yet, there are three mains schools of thought giving different views of the characteristics of Southeast Asian civilization. While the first school, led by Coedes, points out that civilization in Southeast Asia is not so different from its Indian models, the second school, led by Wolters, suggests that Southeast Asian civilization is completely different from the Indian one due to the process called 'localization'. Compromisingly, the last school, led by Mabbett, proposes the local societies. As the debates are still uncompromised, the article offers the deities in an attempt to compromise those debates. According to the observation on the case study, it can be summed up that Wolters and Mabbett's suggestions seem closer to the real situation, and that Southeast Asia its own typical civilization.

First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.