Manusya, Journal of Humanities

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In general, time markers which mark a sequence of events can be divided into two main types: markers that have locution time of utterance as the referential point, and markers that have the mentioned time in the text as the referential point. Both types of markers range from one word which can be either inherent or derived to such constructions as noun phrases and preposition phrases. The study shows an increase in both the derived words and phrasal constructions in the four studied periods: Sukhothai, Ayutthaya, Mid-Rattanakosin and Modern Thai. The study also shows that two types of metaphors, one of moving time and standing time, are used in the four periods with an increase of varieties in each of the periods. Time expressions such as /wan33 naa42/ 'day-front' and /wan33 laŋ24/ 'day-back' are good examples of metaphors of standing time and moving time respectively, both used to mean the future in Modern Thai.

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