Manusya, Journal of Humanities

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This paper aims to examine recycling as a philosophical concept from a scientific point of view. To understand how one can generate new knowledge in the world of science, a philosophical scientific methodology can be used to answer the underlying questions. The underlying questions in this paper are "What is recycling?, What does "scientific" recycling mean?, what is the relationship between nature and recycling?, and how does recycling relate to society?" To answer these questions, literature from different areas of study, such as archaeology, ecology, and science, will be reviewed. The ideas of each area will provide a process of thought and also evidence, which can support a recycling concept. Some studies may provide facts and some provide theories related to recycling. The methods developed by Gale (1979) and Kuhn (1996) will be used as a tool to define and answer the underlying philosophical questions of recycling. Gale defined the word "Philosophy" as "…that ultimate system of concepts which people refer to in explanations of the events and occurrences of their lives." (Gale 1979: 6)

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