Manusya, Journal of Humanities

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The objective of this research is to see how the concept of Avalokitesvara and Buddhas is explained in the Karanaavyuha Sutra. To do so, I shall study and analyze the ideas regarding the Buddhas, Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva and Adibuddha as found in the Karandavyuha Sutra. The Karandavyuha Sutra is one of the primary sources of Mahayana Buddhism composed in Sanskrit, which has been used as the basis for both teaching and practicing Buddhism in many different Mahayana schools. In Tibetan Buddhism, in particular, the Karandavyuha Sutra is one of the most significant texts, because it is the source from which the syllable "Om Manipadme Hum" is derived. It has been found that according to the Karandavyuha Sutra, through Avalokitesvara qualities, the Buddha's nature is clearly centred around the perfection of wisdom, as the latter is said to be the origin of all the tathagatas. To gain the perfection of wisdom, the text says, a bodhisattva has to engage himself in the development of bodhicitta through the contemplation of emptiness (Sunyata). Having done so perfectly, he will be liberated from samsara. However, in the Karandavyuha Sutra, there is more than one way of gaining the perfection of wisdom, another option being obviously the use the mantra dharani. Practising the mantra dharani is equivalent to that of the practice of the six paramitas. The text also explains that practising the recollection of the name of Avalokitesvara bodhisattva as dharanni will eventually lead to the extinction of samsara. Manifestating oneself in many different forms is another way of bodhisattvas that is stressed as boundless and timeless. Avalokitesvara bodhisattva has already reached the highest bhumi by attaining the perfection of wisdom. He can then manifest himself in order to help all sentient beings attain liberation. There is no self-existence as the manifestation quality also comes from the perfection of wisdom. His power for magical interventions in this world is boundless. The text also shows clearly some theistic influences from the Puranic Hindu Sanskrit literature by which Avalokitesvara is portrayed as the one responsible for creating the whole universe

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