Manusya, Journal of Humanities

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This article focuses on the identification and illustration of the shift in low income housing policy and implementation in Thailand. Housing is one of the major sectors of national development; it plays a vital role in a developing country. Policy and housing mechanisms have witnessed major shifts toward affordable housing since 1973, mainly implemented by the public sector. This article is concerned with the decentralization of the governmental role in providing shelters for low income groups to the present-day civil society activity in the creation of affordable housing. The role of civic social innovation in urban development was a result of key social structure changes to strengthen a community based on social capital. An affordable house is not a spatial organization but rather a reflection of social movement planning. The objectives of the study were (1) To analyze a comparative study between public sector and civic society approaches to affordable housing development by NHA and CODI; (2) To analyze the lesson learnt from development projects by government and civil society, using a thorough analysis of the process of participatory subsidies; (3) To identify the government policy and civic society by NHA and CODI effects on urban development processes in Bangkok Metropolitan Areas. This could help NHA to identify any necessary changes to policies to encourage low income housing development; and (4) To recommend a policy of affordable housing developments for the low income group. The research method comprised a field-base case study using observation, interviews, and questionnaires, which was conducted among a random selection sample of 200 households in Baan Eua Ah-torn Project and Baan Man Kong Project. These findings provide a policy framework that brings together three concepts. First, a policy of providing for low income groups alone is not effective in the development of housing projects; it should mix income groups for sustainable housing development. Second, Baan Man Kong Project places more emphasis on the process and continuity of development than Baan Eua Ah-torn projects. Third, both projects will support the housing shortage. In the final section, conclusions are drawn about social innovation in governmental policy, focusing on empowering experiments with decentralization and governmental democracy accessible to civil society and its interests.

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