Background: The current study explored the factors related to the sexuality, gender, and norms among Indonesian adolescents via structural equation modelling.

Method: A cross-sectional design was performed among 394 adolescents from August to October 2020 in East Java of Indonesia. A self-administered questionnaire measured factors that influenced sexuality, gender, and norms of adolescents. We used smart PLS (Partial Least Squares) to analyze the data.

Results: Two correlations emerge among independent variables, namely sociodemographic of adolescent and knowledge of reproductive health (RH) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (p< 0.001) and sociodemographic of parents and family structure and function of RH (p< 0.001). Sociodemographic of parents (p= 0.003), knowledge of RH and HIV (p= 0.012), and family structure and function of RH (p= 0.006) were directly related to sexuality, gender, and norms of adolescent. Sociodemographic of adolescents (p= 0.031) and parents (p= 0.024) were indirectly related to the sexuality, gender, and norms of adolescent through knowledge of RH and HIV. Our model explains 39.9% of the variance in sexuality, gender, and norms of adolescents.

Conclusion: Factors that influence sexuality, gender, and norms of the adolescent should be explored during puberty to maintain positive attitudes towards sexuality, gender, and norms. Furthermore, there needs to be comprehensive education on sexuality, gender, and norms to promote gender equality and to tackle harmful stereotypical attitudes. The education can be tailored to lead to increase positive perceptions of sexuality, gender, and norms among adolescents.

Keywords: sexuality, gender, norms, adolescent, family, reproductive health, Indonesia


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