Journal of Social Sciences

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This article is set out to understand the nature of Modernization theory by arguing that the widely used concepts of modernization theory in a study of Thai politics have failed to explain the behavior of the middle-class and the emergences of authoritarianism in the last decade. This is because scholars have embraced only "mainstream Modernization", which emphasizes the fact that the correlation between economic development and democracy is relevant and positive. And the middle-class are celebrated as the leading actor in bringing about democracy. However, this is just one point of view. In fact, according to modernization theory, the correlation between economic development and democracy can be either positive or negative for democracy. Importantly, the middle-class are not necessarily an important actor in the democratic development. In order to understand politics, we need to consider all of aspects of modernization theory, not only the mainstream Modernization.

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