Chulalongkorn University Dental Journal

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Surgical treatment of craniofacial bone abnormalities, caused by head and neck cancers, bone fractures, congenital deformities and periodontal diseases, involves the reconstruction using bone graft implantation. Due to limitations and complications from the use of autogenic and allogenic bone grafts, synthetic bonelike ceramics have therefore become widely used, particularly for hydroxyapatite (HA), which has been used for a multitude of medical applications. Because of an advanced technology in the field of stem cell research and tissue engineering, highly sophisticated and functionalized tissues can be constructed using 3-dimensional (3D) fabricating technology in order to replace the use of human structures or organs. Combination of 3D fabricating and tissue engineering offers a state- of-the-art technology that revolutionizes the current treatment of craniofacial bone defects. It is known that HA is one of the most promising biomaterials used to fabricate osteogenic 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, including the reconstruction of craniofacial bone defects. This review aims to provide a succinct review of the most commonly available 3D fabricating methods for fabrication of HA-based 3D constructs used in craniofacial bone regeneration. Advantages and limitations on each of the 3D fabricating methods are also summarized.



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