Chulalongkorn University Dental Journal

Publication Date



Oral manifestations such as candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia are common lesions found in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Those who are on antiretroviral drugs may demonstrate various orofacial effects. Immune reconstitution reflects a patientûs improved immune response, but this may be accompanied by excessive response to previously exposed antigens, resulting in opportunistic infection. Common adverse effects of antiviral therapy include xerostomia and erythema multiforme, which are mostly related to use of protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Perioral paresthesia, mucosal hyperpigmentation and lichenoid reaction may also be seen, along with an increased probability of oral warts and salivary gland disorders. Oral adverse effects from drugs, as well as oral manifestations in patients with immune reconstitution syndrome, need to be generously investigated in order to fully comprehend the effect of drugs for proper and safe usage in the future. This article summarizes reported orofacial effects found in HIV-infected patients who used antiretroviral drugs.



First Page


Last Page


Included in

Dentistry Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.